Astronomy and Astrology / the Same Science

Date: Thu, 18 Jan 2001 15:14:59 -0500
From: earth_2012 <earth@somtel.com>
Subject: Astronomy and Astrology / the Same Science

http://members.tripod.com/~Avalon100/Page2.html
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A Brief History of Astrology

In the beginning, astrology and religion were very closely connected.
Astronomy and astrology were the same science--the split came only
during modern times when it became expedient for the Church to redirect
attention toward dogma and the scientific schools were looking to
elevate logical study of the heavens by displacing the current science,
much the same way allopathic medicine has displaced naturopathic
medicine. Long before recorded history, the stars, sun, moon, eclipses,
etc., were studied by men who charted the heavens and helped their
contemporaries to understand the events and goings-on as they endured
and celebrated with the "as above, so below" philosophy that still does
and always will prevail in astrological thought. Because of these
attempts to harness the knowledge of the heavens, calenders were made
possible. Eventually, the ancient star mappers were able to see the
power each of the planets, the sun , the moon and even the eclipses had
on people and nations here below. The sun, being the most powerful,
correlates to the individual or nation as a representation of self,
which is why sun sign astrology has become so popular.

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HINDU ASTROLOGY

This culture was at its peak from about 5,000 BCE to 3,000 BCE. Their
mythology/religion was based on the seven Rishis (word means "to shine")
who were seven ancient sages and who have their place in the heavens, in
the constellation Ursa Major.

The Hindu zodiac has twelve signs, but the sky is divided into
twenty-eight equal parts called Lunar Mansions. Each Mansion corresponds
to the twenty-eight day cycle of the moon, which makes the lunar cycle
the basis of Hindu, also called Eastern Astrology, which is why often
you will hear of the Eastern world being referred to as children of the
moon and the Western world, as children of the sun.

In Eastern astrology is the concept of Karma, which is absent in Western
astrology. This doctrine of karma and reincarnation is the journey of
the soul through a series of lives. Partly the use of astrology is to
find out at what stage the soul is at in development. Karma is based on
the acts performed and actions not taken in previous lives, their impact
on the current life and the actions taken and not taken in this life and
the influence they may have on the next life.

Today, there is a movement within Western astrology to use karma and
reincarnation within the delineation of a natal chart. The nodes of the
moon, sign and placement, Pluto, retrograde planets--there are several
ways in which it is being delineated.

The Hindu Zodiac as they correlate to the Western Zodiac:

Western Tropical-----------------Hindu Tropical

Aries------------------------------------Mesham--Miash

Taurus----------------------------Rishabham--Vrishab

Gemini------------------------------Mithunam---Mithun

Cancer-----------------------------Karkatakam---Karka

Leo-------------------------------------Simham---Simha

Virgo------------------------------------------------Kanya

Libra----------------------------------------Tula---Tulam

Scorpio--------------------------Vrishikam---Vrishchik

Sagittarius------------------------------Dhanus---Dhanu

Capricorn-----------------------------Makaram---Makar

Aquarius----------------------------Kumbham---Kumbh

Pisces-----------------------Meenam---Meena---Minam

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BABYLONIAN ASTROLOGY

Babylonia, the southern part of Mesopotamia was first settled by the
Sumerians, a simple folk who lived close to nature, but spent much time
looking up at the heavens. Over the generations, they charted the
movements of the known bodies in the heavens, gave them names, assigned
a god to each, complete with personalities. It was the early Babylonian
priest--astrologers who set down what has come down to us in the form of
modern astrology. It was they who divided the heavens into twelve equal
parts of 30 degrees each in a 360 degree circle. Each division was
called a "house" and ruled various aspects of life.

House
Babylonian                                                       Modern

1..................................................................Life..................................................................Self

2......................................................Riches and Poverty..........................................Possessions

3................................................................Brothers.........................Siblings and Short Journeys

4.............................................................Parents......................................Home and End of Life

5...........................................................Children.....................................Creativity and Children

6......................................................Health and Illness........................Health, Work and Service

7......................................................Wife and Husband......................Partnerships and Marriage

8.................................................................Death.......................Death, Legacies, Regeneration

9............................................................Religion.........................Philosophy and Long Journeys

10..................................................Dignities..............................................Profession and Status

11...................................................Friendship.................................Friends, Hopes and Wishes

12..........................................................Enmity.............................Limitations and Self-Undoing

Personal astrology did not come into being until about the middle of the
5th Century BCE. Until then, astrology was used for general forecasting
of common events such as floods, planting and harvesting, war issues and
the rule of kings. Babylonian astrology was popular until about the time
of the Romans, circa 125 BCE.

The Zodiac list below correlates the Babylonian and Modern signs.

Babylonian.....................Modern

Aries...............................Aries

Pleiades..........................Taurus

Gemini............................Gemini

Presepe..........................Cancer

Leo................................Leo

Spica.............................Virgo

Libra..............................Libra

Scorpio..........................Scorpio

Sagittarius......................Sagittarius

Capricornus...................Capricorn

Aquarius........................Aquarius

Pisces............................Pisces

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EGYPTIAN ASTROLOGY

From about 3,000 BCE to 300 BCE, astrology and religion were synonymous
in practice with the priests holding the knowledge of the heavens. The
main focus of life in Egypt was the Nile River and it is not surprising
that water is a basic imagery used in Egyptian astrology. The sky became
a large river (a goddess named Nut) and the lesser gods crossed the
sky-river in boats. From this came the custom of supplying deceased
pharaohs, with all they would need to cross the great river. The
Egyptians believed the sun god controlled the Nile River and made it
possible for the Nile to flood its banks making agriculture possible.
The moon and Venus held superior places also.

In the beginning, the Egyptians divided the sky into 36 sections. These
36 sections became what the Greek astrologers called the dekanoi (ten
days apart) and come down to us in tact as the decanates, which we still
use today. Later, the sky was divided into 12 sections and each section
was given a name and assigned three stars. Each was given a boat to
cross the sky river. There as a special deity or god for each month and
each day of the year.

Individual chart forecasting using the date of birth was first developed
by the Egyptians in the 5th century BCE. Until that time astrology was
used, as in other cultures, to predict wide-scale common events like
weather, war, famine and leadership issues.

The Egyptian Zodiac:

Egyptian..................................Modern

The Sheep...........................................Aries the Ram

The Bull.............................................Taurus the Bull

Two Men Clasping Hands...............Gemini the Twins

The Scarab.......................................Cancer the Crab

The Lion................................................Leo the Lion

The Maiden.......................................Virgo the Virgin

The Horizon......................................Libra the Scales

The Scorpion............................Scorpio the Scorpion

He Who Draws a Bow...............Sagittarius the Archer

The Goat......................................Capricorn the Goat

The Water Man...................Aquarius the Waterbearer

The Fishes...............................Pisces the Two Fishes

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CHINESE ASTROLOGY

Historically, some mark the beginning of Chinese astrology at around
2800 BCE during the reign or Emperor Fu Hsi. The Emperors were the
center of life literally and spiritually and it was the emperor who
maintained the balance between the heavens and the earth... between gods
and human beings. Isolated from outside influences, the Chinese
developed an astrology that was unlike any other.

According to The Bamboo Annals, which was unearthed in 128 CE, the
Emperor Yao named the 12 signs of the Zodiac and divided the sky into 28
Mansions of the Moon. The 12 signs were named for animals and stand for
the 12 years in the cycle, not for 12 months in the year. Chinese
astrology does not account for the influence of celestial bodies.

The Animal Signs of the Chinese Zodiac:

Rat...........Ox ...........Tiger ..............Hare .........Dragon .........Snake

Horse ......Ram........Monkey..........Cock.........Dog................Boar

There are 5 elements in Chinese Astrology : Metal, Wood, Fire, Water and
Earth. Only 4 are used to divide the animals of the zodiac. They break
into these groups:

Metal: Positive: Monkey and Dog............Negative: Cock and Boar orPig

Water: Positive:
Rat.............................................................Negative: Ox

Wood: Positive: Tiger and Dragon..........................Negative: Hare or Cat

Fire: Positive: Horse........................................Negative: Snake and Goat

The Qualities in Chinese Astrology are Yin (subjective, outward, social)
and Yang (objective, receptive, solitary). The signs are opposite but
equal. Yin is born of light ..seeking darkness and Yang is born of
darkness...seeking light. There is a natural moving toward balance
between the two.

There has been an attempt to correlate the signs with those of Western
Astrology. For further understanding of this read The New Astrology by
Suzanne White (ISBN#...0-312-01797-9).

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GREEK ASTROLOGY


Pythagoras was the most important influence in astronomy/astrology in
Greece from the 6th to the 4th century BCE. The next great influence
came from Eudoxos in the 4th century BCE. He was an astronomer and
mathematician who introduced a Greek calendar based on the Babylonian
calendar. He was the first astronomer to relate planetary movement in
scientific terms, giving us the term planet from the Greek word,
plenetes, which means wanderer, identifying a clear difference between
planets and fixed stars, which do not vary in their heavenly position.

When Greece assimilated Babylon into it’s empire in the 3rd century BCE,
Babylonian astrology was taken and given a Greek flavor by Callisthenes,
creating the Hellenistic Zodiac The Greek zodiac is the first zodiac
apparently free of fixed stars and is accredited to Hipparchus in the
2nd century BCE.

The Greek Zodiac

Aries....................................Krios

Taurus................................Tauros

Gemini.............................Didymoi

Cancer.............................Karkinos

Leo.......................................Leon

Virgo.............................Parthenos

Libra.......................Chelai (Zugos)

Scorpio...........................Scorpios

Sagittarius.........................Toxotes

Capricorn......................Aigokeros

Aquarius.......................Hydroxous

Pisces.................................Ichthys

The Greeks were late comers to astrology. They were an impatient force
and did not early realize that Venus, the morning star which they called
the Heralder of Dawn was also the evening star which they called
Vespertine. When the sixth century philosopher, Pythagorus wrote his
Harmony of the Spheres

The Greek Planets

Sun.............................................................Helios

Moon...........................................................Selene

Mercury, the Twinkling Star....................................Hermes....Stilbon

Venus, noted above.........................Phosphoros, Hesperus, Aphrodite

Mars, the Fiery Star.................................................Pyroeis......Ares

Jupiter, Luminous Star...............................................Phaethon....Zeus

Saturn, Brilliant Star..................................................Phainon...Kronos

In 140 CE, Claudius Ptolemy, a Greek astronomer from Alexandria wrote
Tetrabiblos (which means The Four Books) and it is considered to be the
first textbook on astrology. In this work he set down his observations
and theories describing the function of the planets, houses and signs of
the zodiac. Aspects were set forth as the way to determine a planet’s
good or bad influence in a person’s chart and are still of major
importance today. Ptolemy’s teachings were authoritative for the next
1,400 years.

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ROMAN ASTROLOGY

Along with their religions, traditions and literature, Greek slaves
brought astrology to Rome. Generally, they used their skill to pick
winners in the chariot races at the Roman Circus for their masters. In
the scheme of things Roman astrology was short-termed lasting from about
300 BCE until about 400 CE.

Julius Caesar and indeed all of the emperors of Rome believed very
strongly in astrology and divinations. It is during this time that the
Romans gave the planets and signs their names...the names which come
down to us today.

Planets during Roman times:

Sun.........................linked with Apollo.......................godof the sun

Moon.....................linked with Diana................goddess of thehunt

Mercury........................................................messengerof the gods

...............................................Mercury was also the god of thieves

Venus................................goddess of love and beauty and pleasure

Mars..................................................god of war and aggressiveness

Jupiter..........................................god of luck, health and happiness

Saturn...................symbol of Father Time...the Celestial Taskmaster

These were the only planets used until the advent of very powerful
telescopes gave us the ability to see more deeply into the Cosmos in the
1700’s

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MODERN ASTROLOGY


With the fall of Rome and the rise to power of the Church, astrology was
condemned as a tool of the devil and it virtually disappeared from
Europe during the Dark Ages. The Arabic and Orientals practiced
astrology as a serious science. Finally the Renaissance blossomed forth
from the ashes of the Dark Ages and with men such as St. Thomas Aquinas
(1225-1274) astrology made a comeback in popularity and not only did
some of the great families of Europe, like the di Medici's, support
astrology like they did the arts and sciences, the papal courts had
staff astrologers. Michel de Nostradamus was perhaps the most famous
astrologer of his day. Down through the centuries astrologers advised
kings, popes, princes and queens.

In the late seventeenth century astrology again fell into disrepute and
with the Age of Enlightenment it was relegated to a position of
superstition and occultism. During this time, the planet Herschel, later
renamed Uranus was discovered.in 1781. It was now widely believed that
astrology could not have been a correct, because astrologers hadn't used
all of the planets. Then another planet, Neptune, was discovered in 1846
and later Pluto, in 1930. The universe was expanding; astrologers were
expanding their use of the universe and astrology began making a slow
comeback among the intellectual class.

In 1875, Madame Helena Blavatsky founded the Theosophical Society, the
purpose of which was to study comparative religion and the unexplained
laws of the universe. Many influential astrologers of the day were
active in this society. In the past hundred and twenty-five years,
astrology has been put on trial as in the famous cases of Alan Leo, a
British astrologer who was once acquitted and once fined 25 pounds for
"fortune telling". In America, Evangeline Adams was tried and acquitted
for the same charge. Later she had a successful radio program and Leo's
Astrology Magazine was renamed.... Modern Astrology.

Astrology played an important role in World War II, as Ernst Krafft,
chief astrologer for the Nazi's translated Nostradamus's predictions
with a bent toward Nazi victory. The Americans countered with
translations of their own. When Rudolph Hess defected to England, the
Nazi's said he was "crazed by astrologers" and astrology met with sudden
disfavor. Krafft later died in a concentration camp.

In the past few years astrology has been in the forefront with the late
Jeanne Dixon who predicted the assassination of President John F.
Kennedy and Joan Quigley, who advises Nancy Reagan. Today astrology
again enjoys a position of acceptance in society. As intelligent,
enlightened people understand, astrology is not occult in nature. It is
an understandable science and it certainly is not a tool of the "devil".
It is not evil, nor are astrologers evil. Evil exists in ignorance,
intolerance and injustice.

I hope you enjoyed the preceding series on astrology.

My sources were:

The Only Astrology Book You'll Ever Need by Joanna Martine Woolfolk,
ISBN# 0-8128-8506-6

Dictionary of Astrology by Fred Gettings, ISBN# 0-7102-0650-X